Publications

Articles scientifiques

Publications du LECD sur son site HAL

  • [hal-01478471] A Potential Role for Parasites in the Maintenance of Color Polymorphism in Urban Birds
    24 septembre 2022
    Urbanization is a major challenge for biodiversity conservation, yet the evolutionary processes taking place in urbanized areas remain poorly known. Human activities in cities set new selective forces in motion which need to be investigated to predict the evolutionary responses of animal species living in urban areas. In this study, we investigated the role of urbanization and parasites in the maintenance of melanin-based color polymorphism in the feral pigeon Columba livia. Using a correlative approach, we tested whether differently colored genotypes displayed alternative phenotypic responses to urbanization, by comparing body condition, blood parasite prevalence and parasite load between colored morphs along an urbanization gradient. Body condition did not vary with urbanization, but paler individuals had a higher body condition than darker individuals. Moreover, paler morphs were less often parasitized than darker morphs in moderately urbanized habitats, but their parasite prevalence increased with urbanization. In contrast, darker morphs had similar parasite prevalence along the urbanization gradient. This suggests that paler morphs did better than darker morphs in moderately urbanized environments but were negatively affected by increasing urbanization, while darker morphs performed equally in all environments. Thus, differently colored individuals were distributed non-randomly across the urban habitat and suffered different parasite risk according to their location (a gene-by-environment interaction). This suggests that melanin-based coloration might reflect alternative strategies to cope with urbanization via different exposure or susceptibility to parasites. Spatial variability of parasite pressures linked with urbanization may, thus, play a central role in the maintenance of plumage color polymorphism in this urban species.
  • [hal-03775622] Effects of screen exposure on young children’s cognitive development: A review
    14 septembre 2022
    The past decade has witnessed a rapid increase in the use of screen media in families, and infants are exposed to screens at younger ages than ever before. The objective of this review is twofold: (1) to understand the correlates and demographic factors determining exposure to screens, including interactive screens, when available, and (2) to study the effects of watching screens and using touchscreens on cognitive development, during the first 3 years of life. We argue that the effects of screen viewing depend mostly on contextual aspects of the viewing rather than on the quantity of viewing. That context includes the behavior of adult caregivers during viewing, the watched content in relation to the child's age, the interactivity of the screen and whether the screen is in the background or not. Depending on the context, screen viewing can have positive, neutral or negative effects on infants' cognition.
  • [hal-02326012] The Emergence of Tool Use in Preterm Infants
    13 septembre 2022
    Preterm born children without neurological impairments have been shown to present some visual-manual coordination deficits, more or less depending on their tonicity and the degree of prematurity. In this paper, we compare the development of tool use in 15– 23-month-old preterm infants born after 33–36 weeks of gestation without neurological complications with that of full-term infants according to corrected age. Understanding the affordance of a tool is an important cognitive milestone in early sensorimotor period. Using a tool to bring within reach an out-of-reach object, for instance, has been shown to develop during the 2nd year in full-term infants. Here we presented preterm infants with an attractive toy out of reach and with a rake-like tool within reach in five conditions of spatial relationships between the toy and the tool. Like full-terms, preterm infants used the tool with success in conditions of spatial contiguity around 15–17 months. In conditions of a spatial gap between tool and toy, i.e., the only conditions which shows without ambiguity that the infant understands the affordance of the tool, preterm infants as a group showed no delay for tool use: the frequency of spontaneous successes started to increase after 18 months, and demonstration became effective after that age. However, further analyses showed that only the preterm infants without hypotonia and born after 36 weeks of pregnancy developed tool use without delay. Hypotonic preterm infants were still largely unsuccessful in the conditions of spatial gap, even at the end of the study. The degree of prematurity also influenced the performance at tool use. These results, following the observation of a delay in the development of bimanual coordination and of handedness in the same infants at 10–12 months in a previous study, show that low risk preterm infants can still be impaired for the development of new manual skills beyond the 1st year. Thus, hypotonic preterm infants and infants born before 36 weeks of pregnancy should be followed and might benefit from early intervention programs.
  • [hal-02326108] When do infants understand that they can obtain a desired part of a composite object by grasping another part?
    13 septembre 2022
    When do infants start to understand that they can grasp an object by its handle when the interesting part is out of reach? Whereas it is known from preferential looking tasks that already at three months of age infants show surprise when all parts of an object do not move together, little is known about when infants are able to use such knowledge in an active grasp situation. To answer this question we presented six, eight, and 10 month-old infants in a cross-sectional and a longitudinal study with a white cardboard handle within reach and a bright ball at the end of the handle and out of reach. A trick condition, where the handle and the ball seem attached but were not, was added to get an indication of the infant's expectation by observing a possible surprise reaction. Results show that 6-month-olds' most frequent first behaviors consisted in pointing toward the ball without grasping the handle, or grasping the handle without looking at the ball until it moved. In addition, they often did not look surprised in the trick condition. Eight- and 10-month-olds most often grasped the handle while looking at the ball, and showed clear surprise in the trick condition. This was interpreted as showing that around eight or 10 months, infants take a significant step in understanding the cohesiveness of composite objects during grasping.
  • [hal-02326354] Comment le bébé accède-t-il à la notion d’outil ?
    6 septembre 2022
    L’utilisation d’un outil permet de dépasser les limites de son propre corps pour interagir avec l’environnement. Après avoir appris à contrôler sa main pour prendre des objets, le bébé découvre peu à peu qu’un objet peut permettre d’agir sur un autre objet. Dans cet article nous nous intéressons à la fonction particulière de l’outil qui permet de rapprocher un objet présenté hors de portée. Nous passons d’abord en revue les comportements précurseurs de cette habileté, comme l’utilisation de moyens intermédiaires pour atteindre un but secondaire (means-end), ainsi que les premières études consacrées à l’utilisation d’outil pour rapprocher un objet. Dans un deuxième temps nous posons la question des mécanismes sous-jacents à la découverte de cette utilisation de l’outil à partir des résultats d’une étude où nous avons suivi quatre bébés pendant près d’un an à partir de 12 mois en leur présentant un jouet hors de portée et un râteau à portée de main. Nos résultats montrent que les bébés mettent plusieurs séances avant de comprendre l’utilité du râteau, séances pendant lesquelles soit ils explorent le râteau, soit ils quémandent le jouet, soit ils associent le râteau et le jouet mais pas pour essayer de rapprocher le jouet. Ce n’est que vers 18 mois, relativement soudainement, que les bébés ont semblé comprendre que le râteau pouvait leur permettre de rapprocher le jouet. Au vu des résultats, nous concluons que les mécanismes « essai-erreur » et apprentissage par observation nécessitent un certain niveau d’intuition de la solution pour être efficaces, mais que l’intuition elle-même nécessite une longue phase d’exploration qui permet dans un premier temps à la fois d’améliorer la manipulation du râteau (qui devient un prolongement de la main ?) et d’en découvrir les affordances.
  • [hal-03636219] Comment les adolescents perçoivent-ils la relation avec leur camarade préféré(e) ?
    6 septembre 2022
    Le premier objectif de cette recherche était d’apporter un soutien empirique à un modèle tridimensionnel de la perception qu’ont les adolescents de la relation avec leur camarade de classe préféré. Les trois dimensions étaient : l’attachement émotionnel au camarade, le sentiment qu’il serait prêt à apporter son aide pour réussir une activité scolaire, et le fait de s’attendre à ce qu’il offre son soutien en cas d’agression par d’autres élèves. Le deuxième objectif était de tester des hypothèses concernant les facteurs de variation de cette perception. Dans le cadre d’une enquête nationale, un échantillon représentatif des élèves français en classe de 3ème, âgés en moyenne de 15 ans et 4 mois, a répondu à un questionnaire destiné à évaluer cette perception. Une analyse factorielle confirmatoire (AFC) indique que le modèle tridimensionnel est bien ajusté aux réponses des élèves. Les trois sous-échelles sont positivement mais modérément inter-corrélées. Une analyse multivariée de la variance a révélé que la relation avec le camarade de classe préféré est mieux perçue par les filles que par les garçons, qu’elle est évaluée à un niveau plus élevé lorsque ce camarade est le meilleur ami en dehors du collège et aussi lorsque cette préférence n’est pas trop récente.
  • [hal-02949928] Le DLPF : un nouvel outil pour l'évaluation du développement du langage de production en français
    6 septembre 2022
    Nous présentons ici un instrument, dénommé DLPF, qui est destiné à permettre une évaluation du développement du langage de production chez les enfants français entre le début de la deuxième année et la fin de la quatrième année. C’est un instrument d’évaluation indirecte – il s’agit d’un questionnaire à faire remplir par les parents – que nous avons souhaité rendre le plus complet possible, couvrant les principales acquisitions dans les trois dimensions lexicale, grammaticale et pragmatique. Des extraits des annexes complètent la présentation. La version complète de ces annexes est disponible directement auprès des auteurs.
  • [hal-02952596] Le tempo, fondement des compétences musicales et support du développement sociocognitif
    6 septembre 2022
    La musique est un objet sonore complexe mais qui repose sur une organisation temporelle très régulière. Cette caractéristique forte permet, lorsqu’elle est maîtrisée, d’anticiper les événements et de s’y synchroniser. La littérature scientifique souligne que l’être humain a une capacité à traiter ces régularités sur la base d’un tempo interne qui caractérise chaque individu. Bon nombre d’études chez l’adulte, l’enfant et le bébé montrent que le tempo interne oriente efficacement l’attention vers les objets ou événements importants. Au cours des premières années, pendant lesquelles cette compétence temporelle se développe, le jeune enfant baigne déjà dans un milieu riche en régularités temporelles multimodales, en produit de nombreuses et est soutenu dans son développement par ses partenaires sociaux privilégiés. Ces derniers lui proposent des interactions aux régularités temporelles saillantes qui lui permettent d’orienter son attention pour développer ses compétences cognitives et sociales.
  • [hal-01480095] Live Maternal Speech and Singing Have Beneficial Effects on Hospitalized Preterm Infants
    29 août 2022
    AIM: To study the effects of live maternal speaking and singing on physiological parameters of preterm infants in the NICU and to test the hypothesis that vocal stimulation can have differential effects on preterm infants at a behavioural level. METHODS: Eighteen mothers spoke and sang to their medically stable preterm infants in their incubators over 6 days, between 1 and 2 pm. Heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (OxSat), number of critical events (hypoxemia, bradycardia and apnoea) and change in behavioural state were measured. RESULTS: Comparisons of periods with and without maternal vocal stimulation revealed significantly greater oxygen saturation level and heart rate and significantly fewer negative critical events (p < 0.0001) when the mother was speaking and singing. Unexpected findings were the comparable effects of maternal talk and singing on infant physiological parameters and the differential ones on infant behavioural state. CONCLUSION: A renewed connection to the mother's voice can be an important and significant experience for preterm infants. Exposure to maternal speech and singing shows significant early beneficial effects on physiological state, such as oxygen saturation levels, number of critical events and prevalence of calm alert state. These findings have implications for NICU interventions, encouraging maternal interaction with their medically stable preterm infants.
  • [hal-03636218] Les peurs des adolescents concernant leur avenir scolaire et professionnel : structure et variations selon le niveau scolaire, le sexe et la classe sociale
    5 août 2022
    Les peurs des adolescents concernant leur avenir scolaire et professionnel 2 Les peurs des adolescents concernant leur avenir scolaire et professionnel : structure et variations selon le niveau scolaire, le sexe et la classe sociale. Résumé : La présente recherche vise à valider auprès d'adolescents un nouveau construit psychologique : l'anxiété suscitée par l'avenir scolaire et professionnel. Les résultats suggèrent que ce motif général d'anxiété se décline en trois motifs spécifiques : la peur d'échouer, la peur de décevoir ses parents, et la peur de s'éloigner de ses autruis significatifs, dans le cadre de ses parcours scolaire et professionnel. La force de ces motifs d'anxiété présente des différences significatives selon la classe sociale, le sexe et les performances scolaires. Les analyses de régression multiple révèlent que les différences persistent en dépit du contrôle du niveau scolaire. Cette anxiété peut être interprétée comme une composante d'un habitus de classe sociale ou de rôle sexué.
  • [hal-01495100] Behavioural measures of child's eating temperament and their link with BMI
    5 août 2022
    Rothbart's model of temperament, defined as individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation, has a strong heuristic value with applications in a wide variety of children's outcomes. Our objective was to test Rothbart's model applied to children's food behaviours and BMI outcome through behavioural measures. Our hypotheses, according to Rothbart's model, were as follows: (i) self-regulation in eating modulates appetite reactivity; (ii) appetite reactivity increases the risk of excess BMI, whereas self regulation in eating limits this risk. One hundred and four children aged between 7 and 12 years completed four behavioural tasks to assess scores for two components of appetite reactivity (i.e. appetite arousal and appetite persistence) and two components of self-regulation in eating (i.e. self-regulation in eating without hunger and self-regulation in eating speed). Their heights and weights were measured in order to calculate their BMI-for-age. T-tests and regression analysis were used to verify our hypotheses. None of the scores of self-regulation in eating was directly associated with BMI but we observed a significant impact of self-regulation in eating without hunger on appetite arousal (p-value = 0.04), together with a modest but significant association between appetite persistence and BMI (p value = 0.02). We can thus conclude that our behavioural measures could be used for the determination of the child's eating temperament. Further studies are needed to investigate how to use these measures to improve the treatment of overweight in children. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • [hal-01478435] Individual Differences in Exploratory Activity Relate to Cognitive Judgement Bias in Carpenter Ants
    5 août 2022
    Emotional state may influence cognitive processes such as attention and decision-making. A cognitive judgement bias is the propensity to anticipate either positive or negative consequences in response to ambiguous information. Recent work, mainly on vertebrates, showed that the response to ambiguous stimuli might change depending on an individual's affective state, which is influenced by e.g. the social and physical environment. However, the response to ambiguous stimuli could also be affected by the individual's behavioural type (personality), a question that has been under-investigated. We studied the link between individual differences in exploratory activity and the response to an ambiguous stimulus in the ant Camponotus aethiops. Exploratory behaviour, quantified with an open-field test, was variable among individuals but consistent over time within individuals. Individual ants learned to associate a spatial position to a reinforcement and another spatial position to a punishment. Once the ants had acquired this discrimination, cognitive judgement bias was tested with the stimulus in an intermediate position. Fast explorers in the open-field took significantly more time to approach the ambiguous stimulus compared to slow explorers, suggesting a negative judgement bias for fast explorers and a positive bias for slow explorers. This previously unknown link between individual difference in exploratory activity and cognitive bias in a social insect may help understanding the evolution and organization of social life.
  • [hal-01478438] You Know What? I'm Happy. Cognitive Bias Is Not Related to Personality but Is Induced by Pair-Housing in Canaries (Serinus Canaria)
    5 août 2022
    Recent studies suggest that cognitive bias could constitute a novel and valid measure of animal welfare. Although interest for a link between personality and cognition is growing, no study to date investigated whether a cognitive bias might be related to the personality of the individuals. We trained 43 domestic canaries (Serinus canaria) to discriminate between two sides of a test cage, each side being associated with a different value (attractive or aversive food in a dish). During the test phase, the dish was placed at intermediate locations, representing ambiguous information. Results show evidence of an "optimistic" bias (flying faster to the dish at the ambiguous location) in birds housed in pairs, compared to birds housed singly, suggesting an influence of social context (living conditions) on canaries' emotions when tested individually. We also studied six traits of individuals' personality and found that aggressiveness, neophobia, one sociability index and obstinacy were repeatable across social context and/or day-light schedule, whereas the other sociability index, boldness and locomotion were not. No correlation between the birds' optimism and any of their personality traits was found, suggesting that cognitive bias may be a matter of social context rather than of individual personality.
  • [hal-03677989] Development of body knowledge as measured by arm differentiation in infants: From global to local?
    5 août 2022
    The ability to sense and use the body parts in an organized and differentiated manner is a precursor of body knowledge in infancy. To acquire this ability, the infant's brain might explore the perceptual consequences of its bodily actions. Undifferentiated body movements would gradually be replaced by more precise actions. Only a very few studies have tested this ‘global-to-local’ hypothesis, and none of them have so far been replicated. In this study, we assessed arm differentiation in 4-, 6-, and 8-month-old infants using a new contingency detection task in which infants have to detect a contingency between one of their arms’ activity and an audiovisual stimulus on a screen. We found that 4- to 8-month-old infants seem to be able to use their arms in a differentiated manner. However, surprisingly, we were not able to show a developmental trend in arm differentiation between 4 and 8 months of age.
  • [hal-03130944] Sensorimotor Contingencies as a Key Drive of Development: From Babies to Robots
    5 août 2022
    Much current work in robotics focuses on the development of robots capable of autonomous unsupervised learning. An essential prerequisite for such learning to be possible is that the agent should be sensitive to the link between its actions and the consequences of its actions, called sensorimotor contingencies. This sensitivity, and more particularly its role as a key drive of development, has been widely studied by developmental psychologists. However, the results of these studies may not necessarily be accessible or intelligible to roboticians. In this paper, we review the main experimental data demonstrating the role of sensitivity to sensorimotor contingencies in infants’ acquisition of four fundamental motor and cognitive abilities: body knowledge, memory, generalization, and goal-directedness. We relate this data from developmental psychology to work in robotics, highlighting the links between these two domains of research. In the last part of the article we present a blueprint architecture demonstrating how exploitation of sensitivity to sensorimotor contingencies, combined with the notion of “goal,” allows an agent to develop new sensorimotor skills. This architecture can be used to guide the design of specific computational models, and also to possibly envisage new empirical experiments.
  • [hal-02872004] Premises of social cognition: Newborns are sensitive to a direct versus a faraway gaze
    5 août 2022
    Previous studies evidenced that already from birth, newborns can perceive differences between a direct versus an averted gaze in faces both presented in static and interactive situations. It has been hypothesized that this early sensitivity would rely on modifications of the location of the iris (i.e. the darker part of the eye) in the sclera (i.e. the white part), or that it would be an outcome of newborns’ preference for configurations of faces with the eye region being more contrasted. One question still remains: What happens when the position of the iris is not modified in the sclera, but the look is ‘faraway’, that is when the gaze is toward the newborns’ face but above his or her own eyes? In the present study, we tested the influence of a direct versus a faraway gaze (i.e., two gazes that only differed slightly in the position of the iris on the vertical axis and not on the horizontal axis) on newborns’ face recognition. The procedure was identical to that used in previous studies: using a familiarization-test procedure, we familiarized two groups of newborns (N = 32) with videos of different talking faces that were presented with either a direct or a faraway gaze. Newborns were then tested with photographs of the face seen previously and of a new one. Results evidenced that newborns looked longer at the familiar face, but only in the direct gaze condition. These results suggest that, already from birth, infants can perceive slight differences of gazes when someone is addressing to them.
  • [hal-01478468] Motivation and Manipulation Capacities of the Blue and Yellow Macaw and the Tufted Capuchin: A Comparative Approach
    2 août 2022
    This study compared the motivation of the blue and yellow macaw (n = 8) and the tufted capuchin (n = 3) to manipulate objects that presented different features, their manipulative repertoires, and their ability to solve complex manipulation tasks. Results show that both species seem to be more motivated to manipulate objects that look like food items and that manipulative behavior may be considered as play behavior in the blue and yellow macaws, and would improve foraging motor skills. The tufted capuchins performed more different action styles than the macaws when manipulating objects, and performed substrate-use behavior - the object is put in relationship with a substrate - while the macaws did not. This is an interesting difference because these characteristics are supposed to be precursory of tool-use, behavior never observed in this macaw species. It may be due to the arboreal lifestyle of the macaw and its neophobic character that do not allow it to easily contact objects. Following the same method and using more individuals, further comparative studies should be conducted in order to test these hypotheses. Both species were able to solve complex manipulation tasks.
  • [hal-01645039] La liaison en « Périnatalogie » : des soins entre réseau, liaison et prise en charge mobile
    25 juillet 2022
    La période périnatale amène les (futures) mères à rencontrer régulièrement des professionnels de la santé et constitue de ce fait un moment privilégié pour identifier les signes de vulnérabilité et pour initier des mesures préventives et/ou thérapeutiques pour ces patientes qui sont dans une phase de sensibilité psychique plus importante. La présente étude a pour premier objectif de déterminer si l’unité de psychiatrie d’urgence en maternité PPUMMA a répondu aux besoins qui ont conduits à sa création en s’appuyant sur la description de 8 années d’activité. Un second objectif est d’analyser les diagnostics posés sur la totalité de la période puis de les mettre en perspective dans leur évolution entre les premières années de fonctionnement et les plus récentes. Méthodes. – À partir de ce constat et en lien avec les professionnels de la périnatalité, une équipe de liaison en psychiatrie périnatale (PPUMMA) a été créée pour répondre aux besoins spécifiques à cette période. L’analyse des données a été effectuée sur l’activité de l’unité entre 2008 et 2015, soit 1817 nouvelles patientes. Résultats. – Une majorité des demandes est faite au cours de la période anténatale et est suivie d’une prise en charge rapide, conformément à l’objectif de prévention du dispositif, et grâce notamment au travail en réseau. On observe une sur-représentation des patientes de moins de 20 ans et des plus de 40 ans. Les diagnostics posés suite à la prise en charge révèlent une forte proportion de troubles de la personnalité et du comportement chez l’adulte. Conclusions. – L’ensemble des données souligne l’importance de la détection et de la prise en charge précoce à cette période de la vie. La psychiatrie de liaison dans ce cadre favorise le repérage efficace de troubles maternels sévères et à plus long terme permettent la prévention des risques psychiatriques pour l’enfant.
  • [hal-03620213] Design of a robotic zebra finch for experimental studies on developmental song learning
    19 juillet 2022
    ABSTRACT Birdsong learning has been consolidated as the model system of choice for exploring the biological substrates of vocal learning. In the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), only males sing and they develop their song during a sensitive period in early life. Different experimental procedures have been used in the laboratory to train a young finch to learn a song. So far, the best method to achieve a faithful imitation is to keep a young bird singly with an adult male. Here, we present the different characteristics of a robotic zebra finch that was developed with the goal to be used as a song tutor. The robot is morphologically similar to a life-sized finch: it can produce movements and sounds contingently to the behaviours of a live bird. We present preliminary results on song imitation, and other possible applications beyond the scope of developmental song learning.
  • [hal-01478451] Intentional Gestural Communication and Discrimination of Human Attentional States in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta)
    14 juillet 2022
    Pourquoi les femmes sont-elles sujettes à la ménopause ? Cette question reste en grande partie mystérieuse. Logiquement, les mécanismes biologiques de l'évolution font en sorte que les invididus ne vivent guère longtemps au-delà de leur période de procréation. La ménopause est ainsi rarissime, et ne se produit que dans l'espèce humaine, ainsi que chez deux cétacés : l'orque et le globicéphale. Ce qui a poussé les biologistes à s'intéresser aux orques, dans le but de comprendre pourquoi leurs femelles sont ménopausées. Des observations nouvelles viennent ainsi d'être réalisées et publiées par une équipe de chercheurs de l'Université d'Exeter en Grande-Bretagne associée à des spécialistes des baleines de l'État de Washington, aux États-Unis. Ces observations pourraient expliquer pourquoi les femelles de rares espèces (dont la nôtre) ont une durée de vie largement supérieure à leur période de reproduction. Les orques vivent en troupes d'une quinzaine d'individus unis par des liens sociaux riches et complexes. Remarquablement intelligentes, parfois qualifiées de « baleines tueuses », les femelles âgées tiennent une place particulière que l'on peut observer dans des scènes typiques de la vie de ces animaux, où une orque conduit par exemple ses fils et ses filles, déjà d'âge adulte, vers un banc de saumons. Les jeunes adultes, parfaitement capables de chasser, se laissent mener sur la trajectoire du banc de poissons, dont ils semblent ignorer l'emplacement exact. Tout se passe comme si la...
  • [hal-01478446] Do Tonkean Macaques (Macaca Tonkeana) Tailor Their Gestural and Visual Signals to Fit the Attentional States of a Human Partner?
    14 juillet 2022
    Pourquoi les femmes sont-elles sujettes à la ménopause ? Cette question reste en grande partie mystérieuse. Logiquement, les mécanismes biologiques de l'évolution font en sorte que les invididus ne vivent guère longtemps au-delà de leur période de procréation. La ménopause est ainsi rarissime, et ne se produit que dans l'espèce humaine, ainsi que chez deux cétacés : l'orque et le globicéphale. Ce qui a poussé les biologistes à s'intéresser aux orques, dans le but de comprendre pourquoi leurs femelles sont ménopausées. Des observations nouvelles viennent ainsi d'être réalisées et publiées par une équipe de chercheurs de l'Université d'Exeter en Grande-Bretagne associée à des spécialistes des baleines de l'État de Washington, aux États-Unis. Ces observations pourraient expliquer pourquoi les femelles de rares espèces (dont la nôtre) ont une durée de vie largement supérieure à leur période de reproduction. Les orques vivent en troupes d'une quinzaine d'individus unis par des liens sociaux riches et complexes. Remarquablement intelligentes, parfois qualifiées de « baleines tueuses », les femelles âgées tiennent une place particulière que l'on peut observer dans des scènes typiques de la vie de ces animaux, où une orque conduit par exemple ses fils et ses filles, déjà d'âge adulte, vers un banc de saumons. Les jeunes adultes, parfaitement capables de chasser, se laissent mener sur la trajectoire du banc de poissons, dont ils semblent ignorer l'emplacement exact.
  • [hal-01224185] On Public Influence on People's Interactions with Ordinary Biodiversity
    7 juillet 2022
    Besides direct impacts of urban biodiversity on local ecosystem services, the contact of city dwellers with urban nature in their everyday life could increase their awareness on conservation issues. In this paper, we focused on a particularly common animal urban species, the feral pigeon Columba livia. Through an observational approach, we examined behavioral interactions between city dwellers and this species in the Paris metropolis, France. We found that most people (mean: 81%) do not interact with pigeons. Further, interactions (either positive or negative) are context and age-dependent: children interact more than adults and the elderly, while people in tourist spots interact more than people in urban parks or in railway stations, a result that suggests that people interacting with pigeons are mostly tourists. We discuss these results in terms of public normative pressures on city dwellers' access to and reconnection with urban nature. We call for caution in how urban species are publically portrayed and managed, given the importance of interactions with ordinary biodiversity for the fate of nature conservation.
  • [hal-01480086] Sociality Enhances Birds' Capacity to Deal with Anthropogenic Ecosystems
    7 juillet 2022
    Urban species often adjust their behavior to survive in urban environments, characterized by the proximity of humans, habitat fragmentation and heterogeneous, fluctuating ecological resources. Several hypotheses have been put forth to explain how species manage living in heterogeneous and complex anthropogenic habitats. The ability of individuals or species to beneficially modify their behaviors in response to changes in the environment has indeed been alternatively explained based on phylogenetic, adaptive, and ontogenic arguments. In this study we investigated the role of sociality as a driver of behavioural flexibility in urban birds. Sociality can be defined as the tendency to associate with conspecifics or form a group and may influence a species' ability to survive in an urban ecosystem to the extent that it represents advantages to species or individuals in terms of resource exploitation, fitness, and predation risk-avoidance. Given the potential benefits of sociality we hypothesized that sociality is a further characteristic that may explain how species have successfully expanded their range into urbanized areas. Based on this hypothesis, we predicted that pigeons (Columba livia) will show higher behavioural flexibility when in larger groups, whatever their genetic background and living-circumstances. Using pigeons as a model system, we compared 27 groups in France and Italy composed of four different genetic strains and varying living-conditions: free-living feral pigeons in urban areas, free-living domestic pigeons at the property of a local breeder captive, feral pigeons in a French ecological field station, captive domestic pigeons in an Italian ecological station. We tested two standardized behavioral measures of behavioural flexibility: thresholds for fear or neophobia and rates of problem solving. We found that group number affects neophobia and to a lesser extent problem-solving, suggesting that sociality is a factor enhancing birds' faculties to establish in and cope with heterogeneous urban environments. We consider this hypothesis here as compatible and complementary to existing hypotheses on species' adaptation to urban ecosystems.
  • [hal-01480085] Psychological Disorders and Ecological Factors Affect the Development of Executive Functions: Some Perspectives
    28 juin 2022
    The links between deficits in executive functions (EFs) (e.g., mental flexibility, inhibition capacities, etc.) and some psychological disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders) have been investigated in the past decades or so.
  • [hal-01478496] Context-Related Vocalizations in African Grey Parrots (Psittacus Erithacus)
    26 juin 2022
    A few animal species are capable of vocal learning. Parrots are well known for their vocal imitation abilities. In this study, we investigated whether African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) emit specific vocalizations in specific contexts. We first described the vocal repertoire and its ontogenesis of four captive grey parrots. After a comparison with vocalizations emitted by wild and other captive African grey parrots, we observed that only three call categories were shared by all grey parrots populations, suggesting that isolated populations of parrots develop population-specific calls. Then, we artificially provoked ten different contexts and recorded vocalizations of four captive grey parrots in these situations. Parrots predominantly emitted call categories in some contexts: distress, protestation, alarm, asking (i.e. emitted when a bird wanted something from an experimenter) and contact calls. These results suggest that some calls are learned and can be used in specific contexts.
  • [hal-01181219] Song stability and neighbour recognition in a migratory songbird, the black redstart
    26 juin 2022
    Territorial male songbirds have the ability to discriminate between the songs of their neighbours and those of strangers and for a few species it has been shown that they maintain this ability from one breeding season to the next. To better understand the acoustic basis of this long-term discrimination ability we studied song stability across two breeding seasons in a migratory songbird with high inter-annual return rates and territory stability, the black redstart, Phoenicurus ochruros. Strophe repertoires of 14 males (≥2 years old) were stable from one breeding season to the next and high strophe sharing occurred for males within the same group of houses or hamlets (81%) in contrast to only limited sharing between different hamlets (15%). However, subtle differences exist between the renditions of the same strophe sung by neighbouring males and these differences equally show an inter-annual stability, providing an acoustic basis for long-term discrimination abilities. Playback tests showed the existence of a strong dear-enemy effect: males reacted less aggressively to the familiar, often shared song of a neighbour than to a stranger unshared song and this pattern was maintained when birds returned from migration one year later. We discuss on one side the possible mechanisms leading to the observed patterns of song sharing and on the other side the significance of stable vocal signatures for neighbour recognition.
  • [hal-00722440] Amplitude modulation of sexy phrases is salient for song attractiveness in female canaries (Serinus canaria).
    26 juin 2022
    Song discrimination and recognition in songbird species have usually been studied by measuring responses to song playbacks. In female canaries, Serinus canaria, copulation solicitation displays (CSDs) are used as an index of female preferences, which are related to song recognition. Despite the fact that many studies underline the role of song syntax in this species, we observed that short segments of songs (a few seconds long) are enough for females to discriminate between conspecific and heterospecific songs, whereas such a short duration is not sufficient to identify the syntax rules. This suggests that other cues are salient for song recognition. In this experiment, we investigated the influence of amplitude modulation (AM) on the responses (CSDs) of female canaries to song playbacks. We used two groups of females: (1) raised in acoustic isolation and (2) raised in normal conditions. When adult, we tested their preferences for sexy phrases with different AMs. We broadcast three types of stimuli: (1) songs with natural canary AM, (2) songs with AM removed, or (3) song with wren Troglodytes troglodytes AM. Results indicate that female canaries prefer and have predispositions for a song type with the natural canary AM. Thus, this acoustic parameter is a salient cue for song attractiveness.
  • [hal-03177576] Auditory perception of self and others in zebra finches: evidence from an operant discrimination task
    26 juin 2022
    Vocal communication is essential for social interactions in many animal species. For this purpose, an animal has to perceive vocal signals of conspecifics and is often also required to discriminate conspecifics. The capacity to discriminate conspecifics is particularly important in social species in which individuals interact repeatedly. In addition, auditory perception of self plays an important role for vocal learners. A vocal learner has to memorise vocalisations of conspecifics and to subsequently modify its own vocalisations in order to match the memorised vocalisations. Here, we investigated auditory perception of self and others in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a highly gregarious songbird species and vocal learner. We used laboratory colonies in which founder males had been previously trained to produce the same song type. This resulted in artificial dialects in the song of founders and their offspring. We investigated whether those birds would be able to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics based on song. Furthermore, we examined whether they would classify their own song as familiar or unfamiliar. We found that birds were able to discriminate between songs of familiar versus unfamiliar conspecifics, despite the fact that all songs were imitations of the same song type. This suggests that such discrimination is possible even based on songs with a high acoustic similarity. None of the subjects classified their own song as unfamiliar. Three out of eight males classified their own song as familiar. Thus zebra finches might recognise their own song. Further experiments are needed to confirm such self-recognition.
  • [hal-02929991] Shared calls in repertoires of two locally distant gray parrots (Psittacus erithacus)
    26 juin 2022
    Parrots belong to the handful of animal species capable of vocal production learning. They are considered to be open-ended learners with complex and variable vocalizations. It is not known, however, to what extent their repertoires are shared among individuals within a group or between vocally isolated individuals or groups. In study 1, we mapped the repertoire of four captive African gray parrots (Psittacus erithacus) using a combination of three acoustic analyses. In study 2, we compared the repertoire of two female African gray parrots from two different laboratories who had never been in vocal contact with each other or any member of the other parrot’s social group. Results of study 1 showed a relatively large agreement between all three methods used to analyze the vocalizations. Almost three quarters (72.8%) of categories determined by visual-acoustic analysis were confirmed by at least one of the two computer-aided methods used, i.e., by spectrographic cross-correlation and/or a multiparametric statistical method. In study 2, we found a relatively large proportion of calls shared between the repertoires of the two gray parrot subjects. Over half and over a fourth of calls produced by parrots with the smaller and the larger repertoire, respectively, were shared between the two. No previous study identified such a large proportion of intergroup shared calls within this parrot species. It seems that some calls tend to reappear in vocally isolated groups based on inherited predispositions, similarly as has been documented in songbirds.
  • [hal-02474536] Maternal presence influences vocal development in the Japanese quail ( Coturnix c. japonica )
    20 mai 2022
    Social influences on vocal development of young birds have been widely studied in oscine songbirds who learn to sing by vocal imitation of conspecifics, mainly male adults. In contrast, vocal development of non-vocal learners such as Galliformes is considered as being under strong genetic influence and independent of the social environment. In this study, we investigated the role of the mother on the vocal development of young Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). We compared the vocal development of mothered and non-mothered chicks during the first 21 days of life. We analysed the structural changes of two vocalisations: a) the rally call, emitted during long-distance communication and in stressful situations, b) the contact call, emitted during short-distance communication when chicks are in visual and/or auditory contact with congeners. We showed that temporal and spectral structures of the two types of calls changed during development and differed between mothered and nonmothered chicks. These results demonstrate that maternal presence influences the vocal development of the young in the Japanese quail. Even if the adaptive value of such changes was not assessed, these results highlight that plasticity of vocalisations in species considered as non-vocal learners has been underestimated.
  • [hal-02890126] Diversity of romantic experiences in late adolescence and their contribution to identity formation
    12 mai 2022
    Romance constitutes a central experience in adolescence, which can take several forms including (a) serious romance with a steady partner, (b) casual and short-lived dating, and (c) pending experiences of romantic thoughts and attempts. Using a three-way longitudinal design, the present study examined the gender differences and developmental changes of these romantic experiences, and their cross-lagged associations with identity processes, throughout one year in late adolescence. 389 students (63% girls) filled out questionnaires about their romantic experiences and identity processes. Girls reported more serious romance than did boys, who reported more casual dating and pending experiences. Serious romance increased over the year for both genders, whereas casual dating and pending experiences continued to rise only for boys. The cross-lagged model highlighted that serious romantic experience positively predicted identity commitments and exploration in depth, whereas identity exploration in breadth positively predicted casual dating. This pattern was stable over the three time-points and across gender and age groups. Overall, this study invites consideration of more diverse romantic experiences than those associated with tangible involvement. We discuss the contribution of romantic experiences to the identity dynamic
  • [hal-03241871] Traffic noise disrupts vocal development and suppresses immune function
    11 mai 2022
    Noise pollution has been linked to learning and language deficits in children, but the causal mechanisms connecting noise to cognitive deficiencies remain unclear because experimental models are lacking. Here, we investigated the effects of noise on birdsong learning, the primary animal model for vocal learning and speech development in humans. We found that traffic noise exposure retarded vocal development and led to learning inaccuracies. In addition, noise suppressed immune function during the sensitive learning period, indicating that it is a potent stressor for birds, which is likely to compromise their cognitive functions. Our results provide important insights into the consequences of noise pollution and pave the way for future studies using birdsong as an experimental model for the investigation of noise-induced learning impairments.
  • [hal-01478464] Young Children's Difficulties in Switching from Rhythm Production to Temporal Interval Production (>1 S)
    9 mai 2022
    This study examined the young children's abilities to switch from rhythm production, with short 15 Inter-Taps Intervals (ITI), to temporal interval production, with long ITI (> 1 s), in a sensorimotor synchronization task. Children aged 3 and 5 years old were given 6 sessions of synchronization. In a control group, they had to synchronize their ITI to an Inter-Stimulus Interval (ISI) of 4 s. In the experimental group, they must progressively increase their ITI for one session to the next (from 0.4-s to 4.0-s ISI). Our results showed that the 5-year-olds produced longer ITI that the 3-year-olds in synchronization. However, the value of ITI in the 5-year-olds never exceeded 1.5 s, with more variable ITI in the control than in the experimental group. In addition, at 5 years, boys had more difficulties than girls in changing their tapping rhythm. These results suggest a temporal window in sensorimotor synchronization, beyond which the rhythm is lost and the synchronization becomes difficult.

Médias

ACTUALITES
- Michel Kreutzer, sur France Culture (du 04/04/2022 au 07/04/2022 - disponible en podcast en intégralité dès le lundi après la diffusion du premier épisode), dans l'émission LSD -  Série documentaire "L'intelligence du vivant", de Franck Bessière, réalisée par Anne Fleury
1er épisode - "Définir le vivant" « Depuis pas mal d'années, on se rend compte que les êtres vivants, les organismes, notamment les vertébrés supérieurs, les oiseaux, les mammifères, recherchent également ce qui est source de plaisir. Un vivant, c'est donc aussi un être qui recherche des plaisirs et qui essaie d'éviter les déplaisirs. C'est une des raisons sans doute pour laquelle aujourd'hui, on donne tant d'importance à la souffrance animale et qu'on estime que l'on doit se donner des règles éthiques dans nos relations avec les animaux. »
2ème épisode - "L'humain un vivant d'exception"
3ème épisode - "Dans la tête des animaux" « Les émotions entrent pleinement dans les études éthologiques, qui ne se limitent donc plus seulement aux comportements. »
4ème épisode - "Le génie du vivant"

- Michel Kreutzer, au Musée du Quai Branly (30/03/2022) - Université populaire 2021/2022, Thème 2 : Le corps - "L'"apprendre animal" : comment le savoir se transmet et s'apprend chez les animaux" 

- Rana Esseily, Carla Aimé, Dalila Bovet et Maya Gratier, à la Philharmonie de Paris (07/12/2021) - Colloque "Pédagogie du chant choral" - "Résultats de l'étude scientifique -  impacts sur les capacités psychosociales, les apprentissages scolaires et le bien-être des enfants" (10h20)
https://philharmoniedeparis.fr/fr/activite/colloque/23002-pedagogie-du-chant-choral

- Michel Kreutzer, sur France Inter (26/10/2021),dans l’émission "Grand bien vous fasse" - "Autour des ‘Folies animales'"

- Michel Kreutzer interviewé par Caroline Lachowski, sur RFI (13/10/2021), dans l'émission "Autour de la question" - "La folie est-elle le propre de l’homme ?"

- Rana Esseily sur France culture (11/10/2021), dans l'émission "La méthode scientifique" - "Rire : c’est du sérieux!"

- Michel Kreutzer, interviewé par Octave Larmagnac-Matheron, dans Philosophie magazine (28/03/2021) - "Zoopsychiatrie : À la découverte des folies animales"

- Michel Kreutzer, invité de l’association CVA (Connaissance et Vie d’Aujourd’hui) de Lille (25/03/2021) - Conférence "Éthologie : sommes-nous tous des bêtes ?"


ARCHIVES TELE / RADIO
2017/10/26 : France Infos junior - "Que se passe-t-il dans la tête des bébés ?"
2017/03/26 : France Inter - "Les Savanturiers" - en direct du salon du livre (à partir de 40 min 20) pour la promotion de La science à Contrepied paru aux éditions Belin.
2017/04/12 : France 3 - Le monde de Jamy : "Ces animaux si proches de nous"
2015/01/02 : France 5 - C dans l'air : "Mon chat est-il une personne ?"
2014/07/07 : France culture - Les matins d'été, 2ème partie : Les invités culture/Idées. "Malin comme un corbeau", avec deux éthologues Agatha Lievin-Bazin et Valérie Dufour (à partir de la 98ème minute).
2013/06 : NBC News - "Finches sing like birds and their dad taught them how"
2014/04 : France Culture - "L'intelligence du perroquet"
2013/10 : France Culture - Emission Continent Science : "L’homosexualité animale" (audio 54').
Cité des sciences et de l'industrie - Cycle de conférences Universciences "Corps et esprit : indissociables" : "Accéder à la vie subjective des animaux" - Michel Kreutzer.
2012/12 : The Telegraph "Parrot listens to Scissor Sisters' music".
2012/12 : France 5 - Emission "On n'est pas que des cobayes" : "Les éléphants ont-ils peur des souris".
2011/05 : France Inter - Emission "Vivre avec les bêtes", 29 mai :  http://www.franceinter.fr/em/vivre-avec-les-betes/105163 (05/2011)

ARCHIVES PRESSE ECRITE
2019/11/30 : The Economist - Male nightingales spend the winter practising.
2019/11/26 : New Scientist - Nightingales practise new songs in winter to impress mates in spring.
2017/03 :  Sciences Psy - Le tempo de notre quotidien - Et si nous prenions le temps ?, pp.30.
2014/12 : Santé magazine, n°469 sur l'empathie.
2014/09/03 : BMC - The unheard message of larksong.
2014/06 : JDD - L'intelligence des corbeaux
2013/11 : JDD - Comment les oiseaux apprennent-ils à chanter ?
2012/03&04 : Cerveau&Psycho - Le perroquet mentaliste.
2011 : Le Pigeon en Ville - La vie sociale du pigeon Bizet.
2011/12 : Le Républicain Lorrain - Les pigeons sont physionomistes.
2011/08 : Futura Sciences Les canaris font leur show... et s'adaptent à leur public !
2011/08 : Les Echos - Le perroquet, une langue et un cerveau.
2011/05 : BBC News - Parrots choose to work together.
2011/05 : Maxisciences - Intelligence du perroquet gris : collaboration et personnalité.
2011/05 : PhysOrg - Parrots display teamwork and decision-making skills.
2009/04 : Science Actualité, Universciences - Des piafs malins comme des singes.
2005/02 : BBC News - Sleep helps birds sing better.
A good night's sleep helps young birds master the art of singing, but only after a rather groggy start, Nature magazine has reported.
Savoirs Essonne - Masculin/féminin : le genre existe-t-il chez les animaux ?

Ouvrages

Michel Kreutzer (2021), Folies Animales, Le Pommier, Paris.

Bernard Thierry & Michel Kreutzer (dir, 2021), Témoignages sur la naissance d’une science, Les développements de l’éthologie en France (1956-1990), ouvrage collectif, Presses Universitaires de Paris Nanterre.


Franck Péron (2011), L'intelligence des perroquets: l'hypothèse du cerveau social: Compétition et coopération chez les psittacidés, Editions universitaires européennes.



 

Mis à jour le 26 avril 2022