Articles scientifiques

Publications du LECD sur son site HAL

  • [hal-04305248] Multimodal Communication in the Human–Cat Relationship: A Pilot Study
    24 novembre 2023
    Across all species, communication implies that an emitter sends signals to a receiver, through one or more channels. Cats can integrate visual and auditory signals sent by humans and modulate their behaviour according to the valence of the emotion perceived. However, the specific patterns and channels governing cat-to-human communication are poorly understood. This study addresses whether, in an extraspecific interaction, cats are sensitive to the communication channel used by their human interlocutor. We examined three types of interactions—vocal, visual, and bimodal—by coding video clips of 12 cats living in cat cafés. In a fourth (control) condition, the human interlocutor refrained from emitting any communication signal. We found that the modality of communication had a significant effect on the latency in the time taken for cats to approach the human experimenter. Cats interacted significantly faster to visual and bimodal communication compared to the “no communication” pattern, as well as to vocal communication. In addition, communication modality had a significant effect on tail-wagging behaviour. Cats displayed significantly more tail wagging when the experimenter engaged in no communication (control condition) compared to visual and bimodal communication modes, indicating that they were less comfortable in this control condition. Cats also displayed more tail wagging in response to vocal communication compared to the bimodal communication. Overall, our data suggest that cats display a marked preference for both visual and bimodal cues addressed by non-familiar humans compared to vocal cues only. Results arising from the present study may serve as a basis for practical recommendations to navigate the codes of human–cat interactions.
  • [hal-03130944] Sensorimotor Contingencies as a Key Drive of Development: From Babies to Robots
    4 février 2021
    Much current work in robotics focuses on the development of robots capable of autonomous unsupervised learning. An essential prerequisite for such learning to be possible is that the agent should be sensitive to the link between its actions and the consequences of its actions, called sensorimotor contingencies. This sensitivity, and more particularly its role as a key drive of development, has been widely studied by developmental psychologists. However, the results of these studies may not necessarily be accessible or intelligible to roboticians. In this paper, we review the main experimental data demonstrating the role of sensitivity to sensorimotor contingencies in infants’ acquisition of four fundamental motor and cognitive abilities: body knowledge, memory, generalization, and goal-directedness. We relate this data from developmental psychology to work in robotics, highlighting the links between these two domains of research. In the last part of the article we present a blueprint architecture demonstrating how exploitation of sensitivity to sensorimotor contingencies, combined with the notion of “goal,” allows an agent to develop new sensorimotor skills. This architecture can be used to guide the design of specific computational models, and also to possibly envisage new empirical experiments.
  • [hal-03677989] Development of body knowledge as measured by arm differentiation in infants: From global to local?
    25 mai 2022
    The ability to sense and use the body parts in an organized and differentiated manner is a precursor of body knowledge in infancy. To acquire this ability, the infant's brain might explore the perceptual consequences of its bodily actions. Undifferentiated body movements would gradually be replaced by more precise actions. Only a very few studies have tested this ‘global-to-local’ hypothesis, and none of them have so far been replicated. In this study, we assessed arm differentiation in 4-, 6-, and 8-month-old infants using a new contingency detection task in which infants have to detect a contingency between one of their arms’ activity and an audiovisual stimulus on a screen. We found that 4- to 8-month-old infants seem to be able to use their arms in a differentiated manner. However, surprisingly, we were not able to show a developmental trend in arm differentiation between 4 and 8 months of age.
  • [hal-03919211] Premises of social cognition: Newborns are sensitive to a direct versus a faraway gaze
    2 janvier 2023
    Previous studies evidenced that already from birth, newborns can perceive differences between a direct versus an averted gaze in faces both presented in static and interactive situations. It has been hypothesized that this early sensitivity would rely on modifications of the location of the iris (i.e. the darker part of the eye) in the sclera (i.e. the white part), or that it would be an outcome of newborns’ preference for configurations of faces with the eye region being more contrasted. One question still remains: What happens when the position of the iris is not modified in the sclera, but the look is ‘faraway’, that is when the gaze is toward the newborns’ face but above his or her own eyes? In the present study, we tested the influence of a direct versus a faraway gaze (i.e., two gazes that only differed slightly in the position of the iris on the vertical axis and not on the horizontal axis) on newborns’ face recognition. The procedure was identical to that used in previous studies: using a familiarization-test procedure, we familiarized two groups of newborns (N = 32) with videos of different talking faces that were presented with either a direct or a faraway gaze. Newborns were then tested with photographs of the face seen previously and of a new one. Results evidenced that newborns looked longer at the familiar face, but only in the direct gaze condition. These results suggest that, already from birth, infants can perceive slight differences of gazes when someone is addressing to them.
  • [hal-04251766] Fine-scale variation in lip and cheek colour according to the timing of ovulation in women
    9 novembre 2023
    Various animal species have evolved a sexual communication system with females displaying and males discriminating information about the timing of ovulation through sexual signals. More research is now investigating the potential ovulatory signalling function of female red skin colour in human and non-human primates. However, to date, it is still challenging to draft satisfying hypotheses about the evolution and function of the female red skin colour, due to methodological discrepancies between human and non-human primate studies. The present study used a within-individual design and objective methods to analyse the relationship between fine-scale variation in cheek and lip colour (luminance and redness) and the estimated day of ovulation in 15 cycling women. I found weak evidence that intra-cycle variation in lip luminance only may be less modulated by inter-individual variation, with lips getting slightly darker around ovulation. However, day to day variation in lip luminance is likely imperceptible, meaning that lip luminance may not act as an ovulatory signal in humans. This study adds to the growing research and discussion on the role and evolution of the female red skin colour of human and non-human primates in the context of sexual signalling and mate attraction.
  • [halshs-03844931] High Stress Levels and Trust toward the Government Are Associated with More Positive Attitudes toward COVID-19 Vaccines among French Students: A Pilot Study
    9 novembre 2022
    Mistrust in COVID-19 vaccines may hinder vaccination campaigns. We looked at cognitive determinants of vaccination intentions against COVID-19. We were interested in (i) the effects of stress and (ii) the effects of self-protection systems on attitudes and intentions to get COVID-19 vaccines. We conducted an online observational pilot study with 203 participants and used self-report questionnaires to assess perceived stress and vulnerability to disease, beliefs about a dangerous world, pandemic-related stressors, living conditions, attitudes and intentions toward the vaccines and trust in government management of the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants reporting high levels of trust in government and high levels of stress were more likely to have positive attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines, although these two effects are at least partially independent of each other. We discuss how to improve the communication around COVID-19 vaccine policies.
  • [hal-04251753] Testing for links between female urine odor and male sexual behaviors in Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata)
    7 novembre 2023
    Urine is involved in sexual communication in New World monkeys and lemurs, but most studies of the role of olfaction in sexual communication in Old World monkeys have focused on vaginal secretions rather than urine. We investigated whether female urine promotes male sexual behaviors (approaches and inspections of genital area) in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). We used a sequential presentation paradigm in behavioral experiments, presenting unfamiliar female urine and control cotton swabs to males living in a social group with cycling females. We tested whether males (N = 3) showed more processing behaviors (licking, sniffing, tasting) toward female urine (22 stimuli per male from prefertile, fertile, and postfertile phases, based on urinary estrone and progesterone conjugate profiles) than control odor (8 stimuli per male). We then compared male sexual behaviors toward resident females pre- and post-exposure to stimuli and in relation to the females’ reproductive status (perifertile, nonfertile, and pregnancy periods, based on fecal estrone and progesterone conjugate profiles). We found that males showed significantly more processing behaviors toward urine stimuli than to controls but that male behavior did not vary across urine samples from prefertile, fertile, and postfertile phases. Exposure to unfamiliar female urine stimuli did not modulate male approaches to and inspections of resident females at any stage of the female reproductive cycle. Although our study is limited by its small sample size, the results suggest that female urine contains compounds that males detect, but we found no evidence that female urine is related to male sexual behaviors.
  • [hal-04251747] The redder the better? Information content of red skin coloration in female Japanese macaques
    7 novembre 2023
    Primates appear unusual among mammals in the expression of female colorful ornaments in the absence of sex role reversal. Most studies of female ornamentation in primates have focused on the sexual signaling function of female exaggerated ano-genital swellings in female-female competition and male attraction, but other female colorful ornaments, such as red skin coloration, may also contain information about reproductive status and individual characteristics. We analyzed variation in facial and hindquarter coloration (redness and luminance) according to the timing of the fertile phase (intra-cycle variation), the cycle number, whether the cycle was conceptive or non-conceptive (inter-cycle variation), and in relation to individual characteristics (social rank, parity, and body mass) in 12 captive female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). While facial and hindquarter coloration did not accurately indicate the timing of the fertile phase, variation in hindquarter luminance signaled perceptible differences between pre- and post-ovulation stages. Hindquarters became less red, and faces were lighter as the number of consecutive cycles increased. Hindquarters were redder during non-conceptive cycles compared with conceptive ones. Individual variation in skin redness and luminance appeared perceptible under good light conditions. Higher-ranking females had darker hindquarters. We also found that variation in female skin coloration may contain information about differences in body mass but not in parity. Female skin coloration in Japanese macaques may thus be more indicative of inter-cycle variation and various specific female characteristics than the timing of the fertile phase. Our study provides insight into the potential information content of this signal and demonstrates the characteristics that males might be selecting for should males prefer redder females.
  • [hal-04251737] Multimodal Sexual Signaling and Mating Behavior in Olive Baboons (Papio anubis)
    7 novembre 2023
    In primate species, mating decisions seem to be based on multiple signal elements with different roles in the signaling of female reproductive status. Whereas some primate signals are relatively well described (e.g., sexual swellings and copulation calls), studies that simultaneously assess visual, auditory, behavioral, and olfactory cues as signals of reproductive state are rarely undertaken. We used data on variation in sexual behaviors and sexual swellings in relation to the fertile period (estimated from the date of swelling detumescence) from a troop of semi‐free ranging olive baboons ( Papio anubis ) to assess how different signals influence patterns of mate choice. Using an objective and quantitative measure of swelling size and color, along with detailed data on sexual behaviors from 13 cycles of nine adult females, we found that fine‐scale variation in sexual swelling size, female behavior and copulation call rates could advertise the beginning of the fertile phase whereas swelling color did not. Rates of olfactory inspections by males also increased during the fertile phase, suggesting that olfactory signals were of interest to males and may contain information about ovulation. There was no relationship between female characteristics (age and rank) and the expression of sexual signals, except for proceptive behaviors which increased with female rank. Males displayed more sexual behaviors such as approaches and holding and tended to direct more ejaculatory mounts during the fertile phase. All together, we suggest that whereas all males could have information concerning the timing of ovulation through female proceptive behaviors and swelling size, consorting males may have access to additional signals (olfactory cues). Sexual communication in olive baboons is consistent with a multimodal framework for fertility signaling, potentially allowing males and females to establish different mating strategies. The possible selective pressures leading to multi‐modal signaling are discussed.
  • [hal-04251763] Testing for links between face color and age, dominance status, parity, weight, and intestinal nematode infection in a sample of female Japanese macaques
    7 novembre 2023
    Studies of the role of secondary sexual ornaments in mate choice tend to focus on colorful traits in males, but females of many animal species express colorful ornamentation too. Among non-human primates, investigations into the role of female secondary sexual traits as indicators of life history characteristics, reproductive success, and health status have mostly focused on sexual swellings, whereas only few studies have been conducted on the role of facial color. Recent studies on rhesus macaques and mandrills suggested that female ornamentation might provide information about female life history characteristics, but not on disease resistance factors and parasite infection, which have been shown to affect male ornamentation in some non-primate species. In Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), females have brightly colored faces that are indicative of their reproductive status. Here, we aimed to determine whether female facial color might also convey information about age, dominance rank, parity, weight, and intestinal nematode infection in free-ranging individuals. We analyzed whether female facial parameters (luminance and redness) were linked to these individual characteristics, using digital photography and data on intestinal parasite infection collected systematically during 1 month for each of seven free-ranging females. We found no evidence to suggest that female facial color is an indicator of any of these measures in Japanese macaques. Considering our small data set, it is still preliminary to draft any clear conclusions. Future studies combining digital, hormonal, parasitological and behavioral data are needed to assess the possible role of female face color on male preferences and mating choice in Japanese macaques.
  • [hal-03346900] Does male mate choice select for female coloration in a promiscuous primate species?
    8 octobre 2021
    The traditional view of sex roles and sexual selection emphasises the evolution of male ornaments as a result of female mate choice and male-male competition. Female ornaments are now receiving more attention, although their roles in mating decisions are still less well understood, especially considering cases in which colourful ornaments are expressed by both sexes. In this study, we analysed whether female skin coloration (luminance and redness of the face and hindquarters) influenced male mate choice and sexual behaviours in relation to intracycle (cycle phase), inter-cycle (number of consecutive cycles, conceptive nature of the cycle), and inter-individual (age, social rank, weight, and parity) variation in a captive social group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Males did not preferentially choose darker/redder females. Moreover, males did not appear to use female skin coloration to apportion their mating efforts on the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle or during cycles that lead to conception, or to discriminate between females. Collectively, our results suggest that female skin coloration may not have been sexually selected in this species and that males mated regardless of such variation across females. To our knowledge, our study is among the few to report a lack of male choice for female coloration in a species where both sexes display ornamentation. Our findings provide novel insights on the role and evolution of female coloration in sexual signalling and mating decisions.
  • [hal-04251770] Ten years of collaboration between France and Japan - Studies on reproduction in Japanese macaques
    20 octobre 2023
    Nos thématiques de recherche sont centrées sur l'évolution des systèmes de reproduction chez les primates et ont pour objectif de permettre, grâce à une démarche comparative, une meilleure compréhension de la signification adaptative des processus reproductifs chez les femelles primates. Notre collaboration franco-japonaise (2006 - présent) nous a permis d'étudier la socialité et la reproduction chez une espèce de Catarrhinien, le macaque japonais (Macaca fuscata), et sur des problématiques différentes mais complémentaires (énergétique de la reproduction, stratégies de reproduction, signalisation sexuelle). Dans une première étude, nous avons étudié les liens entre l'énergétique (i.e. statut nutritionnel, composition corporelle) et la reproduction, et nous avons montré que même en captivité avec des contraintes énergétiques moindres (e.g. disponibilité en nourriture constante), la reproduction saisonnière s'accompagnait de coûts énergétiques relativement élevés et que les femelles avec un meilleur statut énergétique pouvaient investir davantage dans les activités liées à la reproduction et pouvaient également se reproduire plus rapidement. Dans une autre étude, nous avons analysé l'information que les mâles macaques japonais recevaient des femelles qui pourrait leur permettre de discerner les périodes avec de hautes probabilités de conception. Nous avons développé un programme de recherche visant à déterminer dans quelle mesure les macaques japonais, en commun avec l'espèce humaine, avaient développé un système de signalisation sexuelle multimodale. Nous nous sommes intéressés aux indices et signaux disponibles pour les mâles afin d'établir leurs choix copulatoires, et nous avons fourni des informations sur le rôle potentiel de différents signaux sexuels: comportement des femelles, coloration de la peau des femelles, odeurs et vocalisations. Nous avons notamment suggéré que les femelles signalaient leur gestation grâce à des changements de signaux visuels, comportementaux et potentiellement auditifs. Ainsi, les mâles pourraient utiliser ces signaux pour ajuster leurs comportements copulatoires et éviter de perdre de l'énergie dans des copulations non-reproductives. Cette étude holistique, combinant du travail de terrain et des expériences en laboratoire, et utilisant une approche multidisciplinaire (observations comportementales (interactions sexuelles), photographie digitale (mesure de la coloration de la peau sexuelle femelle), données hormonales (stéroïdes ovariens fécaux), données chimiques (composés olfactifs des sécrétions vaginales)) nous a permis de déterminer comment différents signaux pouvaient se combiner pour influencer les choix copulatoires chez des primates.
  • [hal-01478437] Effect of Interaction Type on the Characteristics of Pet-Directed Speech in Female Dog Owners
    28 février 2017
    Recent studies focusing on the interspecific communicative interactions between humans and dogs show that owners use a special speech register when addressing their dog. This register, called pet-directed speech (PDS), has prosodic and syntactic features similar to that of infant-directed speech (IDS). While IDS prosody is known to vary according to the context of the communication with babies, we still know little about the way owners adjust acoustic and verbal PDS features according to the type of interaction with their dog. The aim of the study was therefore to explore whether the characteristics of women's speech depend on the nature of interaction with their dog. We recorded 34 adult women interacting with their dog in four conditions: before a brief separation, after reuniting, during play and while giving commands. Our results show that before separation women used a low pitch, few modulations, high intensity variations and very few affective sentences. In contrast, the reunion interactions were characterized by a very high pitch, few imperatives and a high frequency of affectionate nicknames. During play, women used mainly questions and attention-getting devices. Finally when commanding, women mainly used imperatives as well as attention-getting devices. Thus, like mothers using IDS, female owners adapt the verbal as well as the non-verbal characteristics of their PDS to the nature of the interaction with their dog, suggesting that the intended function of these vocal utterances remains to provide dogs with information about their intentions and emotions.
  • [hal-01654903] Mate Choices in Animals and Humans
    4 décembre 2017
    Social life in man and animal is considered as a means used by individuals to gain satisfactions. Sexual reproduction, social perpetuation and the exercise of power are all major goals. In man and animal the forms of marriage and sexual pairing are analyzed through the Darwinian theory of sexual selection as it encompasses aesthetic preferences. It seems to the authors that the behaviors of man and animals are better understood if they are considered as subjects of desires.
  • [hal-01478491] Les appariements chez l'animal et l'humain
    4 décembre 2017
    La vie sociale, chez l'Homme comme chez l'animal, est considérée comme un moyen utilisé par les individus pour obtenir des satisfactions. La reproduction, la perpétuation et le pouvoir constituent des enjeux majeurs pour la réalisation de désirs. Chez l'animal et l'humain les formes d'appariement sont analysées grâce aux théories darwiniennes de la sélection sexuelle, notamment celle des choix esthétiques. Il ressort de ces analyses que les animaux et les humains gagnent en intelligibilité lorsqu'ils sont considérés comme des êtres désirants.
  • [hal-02014219] Consistency of female preference for male song in the domestic canary using two measures: Operant conditioning and vocal response
    11 février 2019
    Variation of female preferences is often reported in the literature and could be related to an artefact derived from multiple different methods used. Thus, there is a need to evaluate the influence of different methods when assessing female preferences. The present study aims to compare female preferences obtained from an operant conditioning test and from female vocal responses to male song in the domestic canary (Serinus canaria). In an operant conditioning test, females had the possibility to choose between two keys; a peck on one key elicited a supposed very attractive canary song while a peck on the other key elicited a less attractive song. Meanwhile, female vocal responses were recorded. Our results revealed that female canaries preferred to peck on the key eliciting the attractive song and that they emitted more copulation calls in response to the attractive song compared to the less attractive song. This study shows the congruence of these two methods and further suggests that they are reliable to study female preferences in laboratory conditions.
  • [hal-04251731] Environmental, biological, and social factors influencing fecal adrenal steroid concentrations in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)
    20 octobre 2023
    The ability to determine hormonal profiles of primate populations using non‐invasive techniques can help to monitor physical fitness, stress, and physiological responses to environmental changes. We investigated fecal glucocorticoids (fGC) and DHEAS concentrations in captive Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata ) in relation to environmental, biological, and social factors. The subjects were female Japanese monkeys from 4 months to 31 years old housed in captivity (27 in social groups and 12 in single cages). Fecal samples were collected from all females, and behavioral data from the social groups during the mating season and the following birth season. Hormonal concentrations were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Our results revealed that both fGC and fecal DHEAS concentrations are higher in females housed indoors in single cages than in those living outdoors in social groups. We also found that fGC concentrations were higher in the cycling females during the mating (winter) season than the lactating females in the birth (spring) season. Age was negatively associated to both fGC and fecal DHEAS levels, but the relationship between age and fecal DHEAS was more evident in females housed indoors in single cages than in females housed in outdoor social groups. We did not observe any association of dominance rank with either fecal DHEAS or fGC. This study showed that measurement of fecal DHEAS and fGC can be a good method to assess stress in Japanese macaques. These findings provide insights about the physiology of these two adrenal hormones in female Japanese macaques, which can be applied to wild populations and is fundamental for captive management and conservation biology. Am. J. Primatol. 76:1084–1093, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • [hal-04251778] Multimodal signalling of ovulation in human and non-human primates
    20 octobre 2023
    Communication in primates is based on multiple elements of signals, often expressed in different modalities. While some individual primate signals are relatively well described for a particular cue (e.g. copulation calls, sexual swellings) or for one specific dimension of a signal (e.g. the size of sexual swellings), few studies have simultaneously investigated the role of multiple signals and cues in the same communicative context. This paper reviews comparative evidence on primate sexual communication, specifically concerning multimodal sexual signalling of ovulation and mating strategies. A comparison is made across primate species, including humans, of the characteristics of different female sexual cues and signals (behavioural, visual, auditory and olfactory) and of their potential roles in the discrimination of the timing of ovulation. The possible selective reasons for such multimodal signalling are discussed.
  • [hal-04251744] Multimodal Advertisement of Pregnancy in Free-Ranging Female Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata)
    20 octobre 2023
    The role of multiple sexual signals in indicating the timing of female ovulation, and discrimination of this timing by males, has been particularly well studied among primates. However the exhibition of pregnancy signals, and how such signals might modulate male post-conception mating decisions, is still poorly understood. Here we aimed to determine if Japanese macaque males use changes in female sexual signals (behavioral, visual and auditory) to discriminate pregnancy and adjust their socio-sexual behaviors. We combined behavioral observations, digital photography and endocrinological (progestogen and estrogen) data, collected systematically during three one-month periods: the pre-conceptive period, the 1st month of pregnancy and the 2nd month of pregnancy. We analyzed variation in the probability of detecting male and female socio-sexual behaviors and estrus calls, as well as changes in female face color parameters, in relation to female reproductive state. Based on our focal observations, we found that males did not copulate during the pregnancy period, and that female socio-sexual behaviors generally decreased from the pre-conceptive to post-conceptive periods. Female face luminance decreased from the pre-conceptive month to the pregnancy period whereas face color only varied between the 1st and 2nd month of gestation. Our results suggest that Japanese macaque females display sexual cues of pregnancy that males might use to reduce energy wasted on non-reproductive copulations with pregnant females. We hypothesize that females advertize their pregnancy through changes in behavioral, visual and potential auditory signals that males can use to adjust their mating behaviors. We finish by discussing implications for male and female post-conception strategies.
  • [hal-02474536] Maternal presence influences vocal development in the Japanese quail ( Coturnix c. japonica )
    19 octobre 2020
    Social influences on vocal development of young birds have been widely studied in oscine songbirds who learn to sing by vocal imitation of conspecifics, mainly male adults. In contrast, vocal development of non-vocal learners such as Galliformes is considered as being under strong genetic influence and independent of the social environment. In this study, we investigated the role of the mother on the vocal development of young Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). We compared the vocal development of mothered and non-mothered chicks during the first 21 days of life. We analysed the structural changes of two vocalisations: a) the rally call, emitted during long-distance communication and in stressful situations, b) the contact call, emitted during short-distance communication when chicks are in visual and/or auditory contact with congeners. We showed that temporal and spectral structures of the two types of calls changed during development and differed between mothered and nonmothered chicks. These results demonstrate that maternal presence influences the vocal development of the young in the Japanese quail. Even if the adaptive value of such changes was not assessed, these results highlight that plasticity of vocalisations in species considered as non-vocal learners has been underestimated.
  • [hal-01495100] Behavioural measures of child's eating temperament and their link with BMI
    24 mars 2017
    Rothbart's model of temperament, defined as individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation, has a strong heuristic value with applications in a wide variety of children's outcomes. Our objective was to test Rothbart's model applied to children's food behaviours and BMI outcome through behavioural measures. Our hypotheses, according to Rothbart's model, were as follows: (i) self-regulation in eating modulates appetite reactivity; (ii) appetite reactivity increases the risk of excess BMI, whereas self regulation in eating limits this risk. One hundred and four children aged between 7 and 12 years completed four behavioural tasks to assess scores for two components of appetite reactivity (i.e. appetite arousal and appetite persistence) and two components of self-regulation in eating (i.e. self-regulation in eating without hunger and self-regulation in eating speed). Their heights and weights were measured in order to calculate their BMI-for-age. T-tests and regression analysis were used to verify our hypotheses. None of the scores of self-regulation in eating was directly associated with BMI but we observed a significant impact of self-regulation in eating without hunger on appetite arousal (p-value = 0.04), together with a modest but significant association between appetite persistence and BMI (p value = 0.02). We can thus conclude that our behavioural measures could be used for the determination of the child's eating temperament. Further studies are needed to investigate how to use these measures to improve the treatment of overweight in children. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • [hal-03620213] Design of a robotic zebra finch for experimental studies on developmental song learning
    25 mars 2022
    ABSTRACT Birdsong learning has been consolidated as the model system of choice for exploring the biological substrates of vocal learning. In the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), only males sing and they develop their song during a sensitive period in early life. Different experimental procedures have been used in the laboratory to train a young finch to learn a song. So far, the best method to achieve a faithful imitation is to keep a young bird singly with an adult male. Here, we present the different characteristics of a robotic zebra finch that was developed with the goal to be used as a song tutor. The robot is morphologically similar to a life-sized finch: it can produce movements and sounds contingently to the behaviours of a live bird. We present preliminary results on song imitation, and other possible applications beyond the scope of developmental song learning.
  • [hal-01478471] A Potential Role for Parasites in the Maintenance of Color Polymorphism in Urban Birds
    28 février 2017
    Urbanization is a major challenge for biodiversity conservation, yet the evolutionary processes taking place in urbanized areas remain poorly known. Human activities in cities set new selective forces in motion which need to be investigated to predict the evolutionary responses of animal species living in urban areas. In this study, we investigated the role of urbanization and parasites in the maintenance of melanin-based color polymorphism in the feral pigeon Columba livia. Using a correlative approach, we tested whether differently colored genotypes displayed alternative phenotypic responses to urbanization, by comparing body condition, blood parasite prevalence and parasite load between colored morphs along an urbanization gradient. Body condition did not vary with urbanization, but paler individuals had a higher body condition than darker individuals. Moreover, paler morphs were less often parasitized than darker morphs in moderately urbanized habitats, but their parasite prevalence increased with urbanization. In contrast, darker morphs had similar parasite prevalence along the urbanization gradient. This suggests that paler morphs did better than darker morphs in moderately urbanized environments but were negatively affected by increasing urbanization, while darker morphs performed equally in all environments. Thus, differently colored individuals were distributed non-randomly across the urban habitat and suffered different parasite risk according to their location (a gene-by-environment interaction). This suggests that melanin-based coloration might reflect alternative strategies to cope with urbanization via different exposure or susceptibility to parasites. Spatial variability of parasite pressures linked with urbanization may, thus, play a central role in the maintenance of plumage color polymorphism in this urban species.
  • [hal-03775622] Effects of screen exposure on young children’s cognitive development: A review
    12 septembre 2022
    The past decade has witnessed a rapid increase in the use of screen media in families, and infants are exposed to screens at younger ages than ever before. The objective of this review is twofold: (1) to understand the correlates and demographic factors determining exposure to screens, including interactive screens, when available, and (2) to study the effects of watching screens and using touchscreens on cognitive development, during the first 3 years of life. We argue that the effects of screen viewing depend mostly on contextual aspects of the viewing rather than on the quantity of viewing. That context includes the behavior of adult caregivers during viewing, the watched content in relation to the child's age, the interactivity of the screen and whether the screen is in the background or not. Depending on the context, screen viewing can have positive, neutral or negative effects on infants' cognition.
  • [hal-04035349] Social goals and peer relationships in early adolescence.
    17 mars 2023
    The study was aimed to identify the main social goals of adolescents in peer interactions, the sex differences of these goals, and their relationships with sociometric variables: popularity and reputation among peers. 335 early adolescents filled out a questionnaire measuring their social goals, popularity and reputation. Relying on an exploratory factor analysis, three social goals scales were constructed: agency, communion, and betrayal. Agency and betrayal were higher for boys, communion was higher for girls. Popularity, aggressive reputation and isolated reputation varied according to the level of these social goals.
  • [hal-04035244] A comparison of two methods designed to identify children's or adolescents' friendship groups
    17 mars 2023
    In this paper we contrast the two methods that are most frequently used by developmental psychologists to identify children's or adolescents' affiliative peer groups. Following sociometric traditions, the first method requests participants to nominate their own preferred peer partners. In the second method, socio-cognitive mapping, children or adolescents are seen as participant observers who report on their own groups as well as on other groups of peers they frequently observe in their setting. First, we trace the history of the methods. Then, we present their theoretical assumptions, methodological procedures, and analytic strategies. For each method, we provide an example, using software tools that | were designed for the specific kinds of data. Finally, we recommend specific criteria that, may guide researchers' decisions for adopting one of the alternatives.
  • [hal-01480085] Psychological Disorders and Ecological Factors Affect the Development of Executive Functions: Some Perspectives
    3 février 2021
    The links between deficits in executive functions (EFs) (e.g., mental flexibility, inhibition capacities, etc.) and some psychological disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders) have been investigated in the past decades or so.
  • [hal-02887838] Régulation rythmique avant 4 ans : effet d'un tempo auditif sur le tempo moteur
    2 juillet 2020
    L'objectif de cette étude est d'analyser les capacités de l'enfant âgé de 1 ½ à 3 ½ ans à modifier son tempo moteur spontané (TMS) en fonction de tempi auditifs. Les résultats montrent que le TMS reste constant entre 1 ½ et 3 ½ ans et que, parallèlement, il devient plus régulier. Les enfants les plus âgés modifient leurs rythmes de frappes si le tempo auditif diffère d'au moins 20 % de leurs propres rythmes. La capacité des enfants à ralentir leurs rythmes de frappes se met en place plus tardivement que leur accéléra-tion. Enfin, les modifications du rythme de frappes induisent une modification équivalente du TMS mais transitoire.
  • [hal-02887830] Tempo Discrimination in 3-and 4-year-old children: performances and threshold
    2 juillet 2020
    Durations of less than one second are involved in all kinds of activities, such as music perception or rhythmical production tasks. It is therefore important to know how short durations are processed at a young age. This study aims to define discrimination performance between 3-and 4-year-olds (tempo discrimination). The first 4 years of life are essential for cognitive development and there is little data concerning those years due to the extreme difficulty of finding methods to assess children's timing performances. Moreover, the results yielded by previous experiments are controversial. Our data revealed that discrimination performances improve significantly within only a few months. The discrimination data from 3 and 4 year-olds are compared to those from older children. The overall results are discussed in a developmental model context.
  • [hal-04133300] Young children’s difficulties in switching from rhythm production to temporal interval production (>1 s)
    19 juin 2023
    This study examined the young children's abilities to switch from rhythm production, with short inter-tap intervals (ITIs), to temporal interval production, with long ITI (>1 s), in a sensorimotor synchronization task. Children aged 3-and 5-year-olds were given six sessions of synchronization. In a control group, they had to synchronize their ITI to an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 4 s. In the experimental group, they must progressively increase their ITI for one session to the next (from 0.4 to 4.0-s ISI). Our results showed that the 5-yearolds produced longer ITI that the 3-year-olds in synchronization. However, the value of ITI in the 5-year-olds never exceeded 1.5 s, with more variable ITI in the control than in the experimental group. In addition, at 5 years, boys had more difficulties than girls in changing their tapping rhythm. These results suggest a temporal window in sensorimotor synchronization, beyond which the rhythm is lost and the synchronization becomes difficult.
  • [hal-01478464] Young Children's Difficulties in Switching from Rhythm Production to Temporal Interval Production (>1 S)
    28 février 2017
    This study examined the young children's abilities to switch from rhythm production, with short 15 Inter-Taps Intervals (ITI), to temporal interval production, with long ITI (> 1 s), in a sensorimotor synchronization task. Children aged 3 and 5 years old were given 6 sessions of synchronization. In a control group, they had to synchronize their ITI to an Inter-Stimulus Interval (ISI) of 4 s. In the experimental group, they must progressively increase their ITI for one session to the next (from 0.4-s to 4.0-s ISI). Our results showed that the 5-year-olds produced longer ITI that the 3-year-olds in synchronization. However, the value of ITI in the 5-year-olds never exceeded 1.5 s, with more variable ITI in the control than in the experimental group. In addition, at 5 years, boys had more difficulties than girls in changing their tapping rhythm. These results suggest a temporal window in sensorimotor synchronization, beyond which the rhythm is lost and the synchronization becomes difficult.
  • [hal-00186958] Female canaries produce eggs with greater amounts of testosterone when exposed to preferred male song
    13 novembre 2007
    Male birdsong has a great influence in the stimulation of female reproduction. However, female physiological responsiveness to song may depend on the degree of complexity of male song. This is expected because females of iteroparous organisms may increase their fitness by matching their reproductive investment to the predicted value of each reproductive attempt. To the extent that the expression of male ornaments is a signal of male quality, we expect females to increase their investment when paired to highly ornamented males. However, female investment may be cryptic and difficult to detect, such as androgen content in the eggs. In this study, we exposed female canaries (Serinus canaria) to attractive and unattractive song repertoires using a crossover design. As predicted, females invested greater concentrations of testosterone in their eggs when exposed to attractive repertoires than when exposed to unattractive repertoires. This implies that song repertoires convey important information about the reproductive value of a given male and suggests that testosterone deposition in egg yolk may be costly.
  • [hal-01604274] Negative impact of urban noise on sexual receptivity and clutch size in female domestic canaries
    26 mai 2020
    In oscines, male song stimulates female reproduction and females are known to adjust both their sexual preferences and their maternal investment according to song quality. Female domestic canaries are especially responsive to wide frequency bandwidth (4 kHz) male songs emitted with a high-repetition syllable rate and low minimal frequencies (1 kHz). We previously showed that low-frequency urban noise decreases female sexual responsiveness for these low-frequency songs (1–5 kHz) through auditory masking. Based on the differential allocation hypothesis, we predicted that urban noise exposure will equally affect female maternal investment. Using a crossover design, we broadcast low-frequency songs to females either in an overlapping noise condition or in an alternating noise condition. Females decreased both their sexual responsiveness and their clutch size in the overlapping noise treatment relative to the alternative noise treatment. No differences were found concerning egg size or egg composition (yolk and albumen mass, testosterone concentration). Due to our experimental design, we can exclude a general impact of noisy conditions and thereby provide evidence for a detrimental effect through masking on avian courtship and reproductive output. These results suggest that noisy conditions may also affect avian communication in outdoor conditions, which may partly explain field reports on noise-dependent breeding success and reduced breeding densities at noisy sites.
  • [hal-01478488] De la notion de genre appliquée au monde animal
    4 décembre 2017
    La vie sociale des animaux est constituée de coopérations et de conflits d’intérêt où le sexe des individus joue un rôle primordial. Cependant, la distinction entre mâles et femelles ne permet pas à elle seule de cerner la répartition des différents rôles sociaux au sein d’une espèce. C’est en tout cas ce que mettent en évidence les recherches portant sur l’activité parentale, le statut hiérarchique, l’orientation sexuelle ou encore les choix de partenaires. Or nul n’ignore que, chez l’humain, ces questions relèvent d’études dites « sur le genre ». Aussi ne paraît-il pas illégitime de poser que les mêmes propriétés étudiées chez l’animal relèvent elles aussi de cette notion. Quant à nous, nous ne doutons pas de la valeur opératoire de cette extension au monde animal d’un concept issu des sciences sociales et humaines.
  • [hal-03482219] Développement ontogénétique de la cognition humaine : champs de recherche, méthodes et perspectives
    15 décembre 2021
    Dès son origine, l’étude du développement de la cognition humaine d’un point de vue ontogénétique, c’est-à-dire de la naissance jusqu’à l’âge adulte, a été soumise à des défis théoriques et méthodologiques. Cette revue de littérature propose un aperçu de la multiplicité des méthodes et des approches permettant l’étude du développement de la cognition humaine, ainsi que de leurs limites respectives. Dans un premier temps, nous exposerons les méthodes classiquement utilisées en psychologie du développement pour l’étude de la cognition chez le bébé et chez le jeune enfant. Dans la seconde partie de cet article, nous décrirons comment certains travaux de la psychologie du développement se sont orientés vers les problématiques liées à l’étude de l’évolution de la cognition humaine. Enfin, dans un troisième temps, nous nous intéresserons aux progrès scientifiques qui ont mené à l’apparition d’un nouveau champ de recherche intégrant l’intelligence artificielle : la robotique développementale. Nous conclurons cet article par une discussion sur les perspectives et enjeux pour l’étude du développement de la cognition humaine.
  • [hal-01478457] L'éthique animale au croisement des perspectives de recherche entre éthologie et philosophie
    28 février 2017
    Des recherches conduites récemment en éthologie tendent à considérer les animaux comme des agents moraux. Ils ne concernent que peu d’espèces, primates surtout, et étudient essentiellement les comportements liés à l’empathie et le sentiment d’injustice. Ces deux thématiques coïncident avec certains travaux menés en psychologie et en philosophie morales qui suggèrent que notre capacité morale s’appuie sur au moins deux principales sous-capacités consacrées respectivement à un sens du juste et à un sens du bon. Ces recherches influencent notre manière de concevoir la morale et notre relation avec les animaux.
  • [hal-01478447] Ce demi-siècle d'éthologie
    5 décembre 2017
    L'éthologie, au-delà du strict domaine de l'étude du comportement, s'étend aujourd'hui aux travaux sur la cognition, les émotions et les affects. Durant les cinquante dernières années, des approches aussi abondantes que variées ont ainsi permis d'aborder le déterminisme de la vie de relation des animaux. Cette histoire a été émaillée par maintes controverses sur les continuités et discontinuités entre l'homme et l'animal. La conception toute récente d'un animal hédonique permet de reconsidérer la vie subjective des animaux.
  • [hal-01480093] Pregnancy, Somatic Complaints and Depression: A French Population-Based Study
    1 mars 2017
    OBJECTIVE: Depression during pregnancy is today one of the greatest medical risks for expectant mothers and newborns. It is associated with numerous morbid conditions and with postnatal depression. Identifying depression during pregnancy is therefore a major public health concern, but screening for depression is not routinely carried out in somatic settings. We hypothesized that the presence of numerous somatic complaints contributes to the detection of an increased risk of depression during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1000 consecutive pregnant women approached during OB/GYN visits at a general maternity hospital. They were asked to fill out a questionnaire, which contained the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a checklist of 18 somatic complaints. RESULTS: The median number of somatic complaints was 5 (interquartile range 3-7). The risk of depression during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters was 18.3% (EPDS score > 10.5). Logistic regression revealed that when the somatic complaints total score moved from 3 to 7, the odds of moving from not-at-risk to at-risk for antenatal depression were multiplied by 2.91. CONCLUSION: Our results call for further research exploring somatic complaints and their link to depression during pregnancy. Until more knowledge is available, we suggest considering that women with a high number of somatic complaints during pregnancy are at high risk for depression and should be referred for further diagnostic clinical assessment and care.
  • [hal-01699823] Pet-directed speech draws adult dogs’ attention more efficiently than Adult-directed speech
    2 février 2018
    Humans speak to dogs using a special speech register called Pet-Directed Speech (PDS) which is very similar to Infant-Directed Speech (IDS) used by parents when talking to young infants. These two type of speech share prosodic features that are distinct from the typical Adult-Directed Speech (ADS): a high pitched voice and an increased pitch variation. So far, only one study has investigated the effect of PDS on dogs' attention. We video recorded 44 adult pet dogs and 19 puppies when listening to the same phrase enounced either in ADS or in PDS or in IDS. The phrases were previously recorded and were broadcasted via a loudspeaker placed in front of the dog. The total gaze duration of the dogs toward the loudspeaker, was used as a proxy of attention. Results show that adult dogs are significantly more attentive to PDS than to ADS and that their attention significantly increases along with the rise of the fundamental frequency of human' speech. It is likely that the exaggerated prosody of PDS is used by owners as an ostensive cue for dogs that facilitates the effectiveness of their communication, and should represent an evolutionarily determined adaptation that benefits the regulation and maintenance of their relationships. Humans speak to dogs using a special speech register called pet-directed speech (PDS) 1–4 , which is very similar to infant-directed speech (IDS) used by parents when talking to young infants. These two types of speech share prosodic and syntactic features that are distinct from the typical adult-directed speech (ADS): a high pitched voice, an increased pitch variation, short utterances, a reduced syntactic and semantic complexity, and word repetitions 1–5. PDS and IDS are also commonly described as 'happy voices' , in comparison to ADS presenting a relatively inhibited emotional content 6. Both speeches have been shown to vary according to the interaction context 7–9 , for instance PDS' prosodic features are enhanced in a positive reunion situation 9. Several studies suggest that IDS is used by humans in order to modulate infants' attention and state of arousal and to communicate their positive affect and intentions in a non-verbal way 10–14. IDS may also facilitate the emergence of language in infants by emphasizing the linguistic structure 15, 16 , for instance by using hyperaticulation of vowels 2, 3, 17 , or words repetition 18. Authors highlighted these functions in studying babies' preference for IDS toward ADS 19, 20 : infants have a longer fixation on, or turn more often the head toward visual targets that produced IDS 19. Infants also better remember and look longer at adults who have addressed them with IDS 20 , and this preference is present when IDS is produced by the infants' own mother as well as by an unfamiliar mother 12, 20. In addition, the exaggerated acoustic features of IDS elicit increased neural activity in infants, related to atten-tional processing 21. Infants also present increased social and affective responsiveness while listening to IDS compared to ADS 19. PDS and IDS may be similar because both infants and dogs are non-verbal listeners and because the affective bond between owners and dogs mirrors the human parents-infant bond. Indeed, both owners and dogs experience an important secretion of oxytocin after a brief period of cuddling 22 and a study highlighted common brain activation when mothers viewed images of both their child and dog 23. In the context of human-dog communication, there is evidence that dogs present an increased neuronal activity in the auditory cortex when listening to vocalizations with positive emotional valence compared to negative or neutral emotional valence 24. Moreover, after a greeting involving eye contact and a high pitched voice, dogs are more likely to follow the humans gaze, similarly to young children do 25, 26. Similarly, dogs are more motivated to answer a command to find hidden food in high-pitched informative than in low-pitched imperative trials 27 , suggesting that they are sensitive to the nonverbal quality of human vocal signals.



2023/06/30 - Articles de Johana Ryšavá

2022/04/07 - Michel Kreutzer, sur France Culture (du 04/04/2022 au 07/04/2022 - disponible en podcast en intégralité dès le lundi après la diffusion du premier épisode), dans l'émission LSD -  Série documentaire "L'intelligence du vivant", de Franck Bessière, réalisée par Anne Fleury
1er épisode - "Définir le vivant" « Depuis pas mal d'années, on se rend compte que les êtres vivants, les organismes, notamment les vertébrés supérieurs, les oiseaux, les mammifères, recherchent également ce qui est source de plaisir. Un vivant, c'est donc aussi un être qui recherche des plaisirs et qui essaie d'éviter les déplaisirs. C'est une des raisons sans doute pour laquelle aujourd'hui, on donne tant d'importance à la souffrance animale et qu'on estime que l'on doit se donner des règles éthiques dans nos relations avec les animaux. »
2ème épisode - "L'humain un vivant d'exception"
3ème épisode - "Dans la tête des animaux" « Les émotions entrent pleinement dans les études éthologiques, qui ne se limitent donc plus seulement aux comportements. »
4ème épisode - "Le génie du vivant"

2022/03/30 - Michel Kreutzer, au Musée du Quai Branly - Université populaire 2021/2022, Thème 2 : Le corps - "L'"apprendre animal" : comment le savoir se transmet et s'apprend chez les animaux" 
2021/12/07 - Rana Esseily, Carla Aimé, Dalila Bovet et Maya Gratier, à la Philharmonie de Paris - Colloque "Pédagogie du chant choral" - "Résultats de l'étude scientifique -  impacts sur les capacités psychosociales, les apprentissages scolaires et le bien-être des enfants" (10h20)
2021/10/26 - Michel Kreutzer, sur France Inter, dans l’émission "Grand bien vous fasse" - "Autour des ‘Folies animales'"
2021/10/13 - Michel Kreutzer interviewé par Caroline Lachowski, sur RFI , dans l'émission "Autour de la question" - "La folie est-elle le propre de l’homme ?"
2021/10/11 - Rana Esseily sur France Culture, dans l'émission "La méthode scientifique" - "Rire : c’est du sérieux!"
2021/03/28 - Michel Kreutzer, interviewé par Octave Larmagnac-Matheron, dans Philosophie magazine - "Zoopsychiatrie : À la découverte des folies animales"
2021/03/25 - Michel Kreutzer, invité de l’association CVA (Connaissance et Vie d’Aujourd’hui) de Lille - Conférence "Éthologie : sommes-nous tous des bêtes ?"

2017/10/26 : France Infos junior - "Que se passe-t-il dans la tête des bébés ?"
2017/03/26 : France Inter - "Les Savanturiers" - en direct du salon du livre (à partir de 40 min 20) pour la promotion de La science à Contrepied paru aux éditions Belin.
2017/04/12 : France 3 - Le monde de Jamy : "Ces animaux si proches de nous"
2015/01/02 : France 5 - C dans l'air : "Mon chat est-il une personne ?"
2014/07/07 : France culture - Les matins d'été, 2ème partie : Les invités culture/Idées. "Malin comme un corbeau", avec deux éthologues Agatha Lievin-Bazin et Valérie Dufour (à partir de la 98ème minute).
2013/06 : NBC News - "Finches sing like birds and their dad taught them how"
2014/04 : France Culture - "L'intelligence du perroquet"
2013/10 : France Culture - Emission Continent Science : "L’homosexualité animale" (audio 54').
Cité des sciences et de l'industrie - Cycle de conférences Universciences "Corps et esprit : indissociables" : "Accéder à la vie subjective des animaux" - Michel Kreutzer.
2012/12 : The Telegraph "Parrot listens to Scissor Sisters' music".
2012/12 : France 5 - Emission "On n'est pas que des cobayes" : "Les éléphants ont-ils peur des souris".
2011/05 : France Inter - Emission "Vivre avec les bêtes", 29 mai : (05/2011)

2019/11/30 : The Economist - Male nightingales spend the winter practising.
2019/11/26 : New Scientist - Nightingales practise new songs in winter to impress mates in spring.
2017/03 :  Sciences Psy - Le tempo de notre quotidien - Et si nous prenions le temps ?, pp.30.
2014/12 : Santé magazine, n°469 sur l'empathie.
2014/09/03 : BMC - The unheard message of larksong.
2014/06 : JDD - L'intelligence des corbeaux
2013/11 : JDD - Comment les oiseaux apprennent-ils à chanter ?
2012/03&04 : Cerveau&Psycho - Le perroquet mentaliste.
2011 : Le Pigeon en Ville - La vie sociale du pigeon Bizet.
2011/12 : Le Républicain Lorrain - Les pigeons sont physionomistes.
2011/08 : Futura Sciences Les canaris font leur show... et s'adaptent à leur public !
2011/08 : Les Echos - Le perroquet, une langue et un cerveau.
2011/05 : BBC News - Parrots choose to work together.
2011/05 : Maxisciences - Intelligence du perroquet gris : collaboration et personnalité.
2011/05 : PhysOrg - Parrots display teamwork and decision-making skills.
2009/04 : Science Actualité, Universciences - Des piafs malins comme des singes.
2005/02 : BBC News - Sleep helps birds sing better.
A good night's sleep helps young birds master the art of singing, but only after a rather groggy start, Nature magazine has reported.
Savoirs Essonne - Masculin/féminin : le genre existe-t-il chez les animaux ?


Michel Kreutzer (2021), Folies Animales, Le Pommier, Paris.

Bernard Thierry & Michel Kreutzer (dir, 2021), Témoignages sur la naissance d’une science, Les développements de l’éthologie en France (1956-1990), ouvrage collectif, Presses Universitaires de Paris Nanterre.

Franck Péron (2011), L'intelligence des perroquets: l'hypothèse du cerveau social: Compétition et coopération chez les psittacidés, Editions universitaires européennes.


Mis à jour le 23 novembre 2023